Find-a-Car Help


Greenhouse Gas Emissions

This measure shows a vehicle's impact on climate change in terms of the amount of greenhouse gases, mostly carbon dioxide (CO2), it emits. Your choice of vehicle has the biggest impact on your overall contribution to climate change.

Automobiles account for over half (51%) of the CO2 emissions from a typical household.

Graph does not include CO2 from public transportation and air travel.

We provide two kinds of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission estimates:

  1. Tailpipe-only CO2 emissions
  2. Tailpipe and "upstream" GHG emissions (CO2 and other GHGs)

If a vehicle can operate on more than one type of fuel, an estimate is provided for each fuel type.

Tailpipe Emissions

These estimates include CO2 emitted from the vehicle's tailpipe and can be displayed grams per mile, U.S. tons per year, or metric tons per year.

Greenhouse gas emission estimate and scale

A rating scale is also displayed to show how the vehicle's tailpipe CO2 emissions compare to those of other vehicles for all model years back to 1984 (GHG rating scale charts by model year).

Note: Tailpipe CO2 is estimated using an EPA emissions factor and does not reflect direct test results.

Tailpipe and Upstream Emissions

These estimates include CO2, methane, and nitrous oxide emitted from all steps in the use of a fuel, from production and refining to distribution and final use—vehicle manufacture is excluded. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions are converted into a CO2 equivalent. Tailpipe emissions and upstream emissions—those that occur prior to the fuel being used in the vehicle—are displayed.

Upstream and tailpipe greenhouse gas estimates

Personalize Your Estimate

You can personalize the GHG emission estimates by indicating your annual mileage and the percentage of miles you drive in city vs. highway driving conditions.

Upstream Greenhouse Gas Emissions for E85

Upstream greenhouse gas emissions related to the production of ethanol depend on many variables and uncertainties that are currently being studied. Estimates for flex-fuel vehicles are not provided at this time.

Additional information about the full lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions of ethanol can be found at

EPA Smog Rating & Smartway Certification

EPA Smog Rating

The EPA Smog Rating represents the amount of health-damaging and smog-forming airborne pollutants the vehicle emits. Scoring ranges from 1 (worst) to 10 (best). This rating does not include emissions of greenhouse gases.

Air pollution score

For more detailed information about the smog rating, see EPA's Green Vehicle Guide.

Ratings Vary By State

All light-duty cars and trucks must meet either federal (EPA) or California emission requirements. Individual states can choose which standards apply to vehicles sold in that state.

Within both the federal and California systems, automakers may choose from a range of emission standards for each of their vehicles, while maintaining the required fleet average, which is why you see a range of smog ratings.

Two vehicles of the same make and model may have different smog ratings. This is generally due to the vehicles being sold in different states (one with federal standards, and another with California standards). Two situations can occur:

  1. The vehicles have different emissions configurations. You can distinguish between these vehicles by locating the 12-digit "Engine Family" or "Test Group ID" on the certification label under the hood (see diagram below). You can also find this ID number under vehicle smog ratings posted on
  2. The vehicles have identical Engine Family or Test Group IDs, but the manufacturer has decided to certify the vehicles to different emission standards. Although provides smog ratings by state, the fuel economy labels that are affixed to vehicles on dealership lots will always reflect the federal standard.

Sample label showing Engine Family

The certification label can usually be found in one of several locations under the hood.

Photo showing label locations

SmartWay Certification

SmartWay logo

Vehicles that receive the SmartWay certification are very good environmental performers relative to other vehicles. They must attain a better-than-average EPA Smog Ratings and Greenhouse Gas Emissions.

SmartWay Elite logo

The SmartWay Elite certification is reserved for those vehicles that attain the best smog and greenhouse gas emission ratings.

Since the SmartWay certification is based partly on the EPA Smog Rating, you must indicate the state where the vehicle will be purchased to view the SmartWay Certification.

Energy Impact Score

The Energy Impact Score shows the number of barrels of petroleum the vehicle will likely consume each year from domestic sources (red and blue barrels) and imports (black barrels).

Annual Petroleum Impact Score Sample

Personalizing Estimates

The estimates on this page are based on assumptions about a "typical" driver. Clicking the Personalize button in the upper-left corner of the table allows you to enter information about your annual mileage, the percentage of miles you drive in city vs. highway driving conditions, and your local fuel prices so that we can provide estimates just for you.

The Personize Button

EPA Size Class

The size class for cars is based on interior passenger and cargo volumes as described below. The size class for trucks is defined by the gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR), which is the weight of the vehicle and its carrying capacity. Fuel economy regulations do not apply to heavy-duty vehicles, so they are not tested. See Which Vehicles Are Tested for more information on these vehicles.

Vehicle Size Classes Used in the Fuel Economy Guide
Class Passenger & Cargo Volume (Cu. Ft.)
Two-Seaters Any
Minicompact <85
Subcompact 85 to 99
Compact 100 to 109
Mid-Size 110 to 119
Large 120 or more
Station Wagons
Small <130
Mid-Size 130 to 159
Large 160 or more
Class Gross Vehicle Weight Rating (GVWR)*
Pickup Trucks Through MY 2007 As of MY 2008
Small <4,500 lbs. <6,000 lbs.
Standard 4,500 to 8,500 lbs. 6,000 to 8,500 lbs.
Vans Through MY 2010 As of MY 2011
Passenger <8,500 lbs. <10,000 lbs.
Cargo <8,500 lbs.
Minivans <8,500 lbs.
SUVs Through MY 2010 As of MY 2011
<8,500 lbs. <10,000 lbs.
Special Purpose Vehicles Through MY 2010 As of MY 2011
<8,500 lbs. <8,500 lbs.
or <10,000 lbs.,
depending on configuration

MY = model year

*Gross Vehicle Weight Rating (GVWR) is calculated as truck weight plus carrying capacity.

Fuel Economics

Fuel cost estimates assume national average fuel prices and assume you drive 15,000 miles each year, 45% under highway driving conditions (steady speeds with little or no stopping) and 55% in city driving (low speeds with lots of stopping).

You can personalize these values to reflect the price of fuel in your area and your own driving patterns.

Cost to Refuel

Cost to completely refuel the vehicle when the tank (or battery) is 100% empty. Plug-in hybrids have refueling costs for both the fuel tank and the battery.

Distance on a Full Tank/Charge

The distance the vehicle can go from a full tank or full charge (or both, with plug-in hybrids). U.S. or metric units can be displayed depending on the setting in Personalize.

Fuel Capacity

The amount of fuel the vehicle can hold. For a vehicle using gasoline or another liquid fuel, this is the size of the fuel tank in gallons or liters. For electric vehicles, this is the battery capacity in kilowatt-hours. Plug-in hybrids have a capacity for both liquid fuel and electricity.

Engine, Motor, and Transmission Descriptors

Engine and Motor Descriptors
Code Description
AFM Active fuel management
CNG Compressed natural gas
CVH Compound valve angle hemispherical combustion chamber engine
DI Direct injection
DOD Displacement on demand
DSL Diesel
DVVT Dual variable valve timing
DOHC Double overhead camshaft
E85 A Mixture of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline
FFS Feedback fuel system
FFV Flexible-fuel vehicle. A vehicle that can run on a mixture of two fuel types (e.g., gasoline and ethanol)
GM-BUICK Engine produced by GM-Buick Motor Division
GM-CHEV Engine produced by GM-Chevrolet Motor Division
GM-OLDS Engine produced by GM-Oldsmobile Motor Division
GM-PONT Engine produced by GM-Pontiac Motor Division
GUZZLER Vehicle subject to gas guzzler tax due to low fuel economy (tax paid by manufacturer, not buyer)
HEV Hybrid electric vehicle
HP Horsepower
I4 In-line 4-cylinder engine
i-ELOOP Mazda regenerative braking system
LPT Low-pressure turbo
M-ENG One of two 5.8L Ford truck engines
MPFI, MPI Multipoint fuel injection
NG Natural gas
NGV Natural gas vehicle
NO-CAT No catalytic converter
OHC Overhead camshaft
OHV Overhead valves
PHEV Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle
POLICE Police vehicle
PR Premium gasoline required
PZEV Partial zero-emission vehicle
RNG140/220 Driving range (on a full tank of fuel); example: RNG140/220 = 140 miles on onel fuel and 220 miles on the other
RNG380 Driving range (on a full tank of fuel); example: RNG380 = 380 miles
ROTARY Rotary engine
S-CHARGE, SC Supercharger
SIDI Spark-Ignition Direct-Injection
SMG Sequential manual gearbox
SOHC Single overhead camshaft
SPFI Single-point fuel injection
TURBO, TRBO, TC Turbocharger
ULEV Ultra-low emission vehicle
VARIABLE Variable displacement engine
VIS Variable induction system
VTEC Variable valve timing and lift electronic control
VCM Variable cylinder management
W-END One of two 5.8L Ford truck engines
ZEV Zero-emisssion vehicle
16-VALVE 16 valves
305 305 cubic inch displacement engine
307 307 cubic inch displacement engine
Transmission Descriptors
Code Description
AMn Automated manual transmission (n=number of gears)
AM-Sn Automated manual transmission with select shift (n=number of gears)
AV-Sn Automatic variable transmission with select shift (n=number of gears)
CLKUP Computer-controlled continuously variable lockup
CMODE Computer-controlled multimode transmission
CVT Continuously variable transmission
CVT2L Continuously variable transmission low-range system
DC/FW Declutching and freewheeling
DCT Dual clutch transmission
EMS Engine management system
LONG RATIO Long ratio gearbox
nLKUP User-selectable lockup with n (2 through 9) lockup ranges
nMODE Multimode, user-selectable transmission. n = number of gear range (2 through 9)
SIL Shift indicator light on instrument panel
VLKUP Continuously variable, user-selectable lockup
VMODE User-selectable continuously variable transmission
Motor and Battery Descriptors
Code Description
AC Alternating current
ACIPM Alternating current induction permanent magnet motor
ACPM Alternating current permanent magnet motor
DC Direct current
DCPM Direct current permanent magnet motor
kW Kilowatt
kWh, kW-hr Kilowatt-hour
Li-Ion Lithium-ion battery
NiMH Nickel-metal hydride battery
PMSM Permanent magnet synchronous motor
V Volt

What's the difference between air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions?

The smog and greenhouse gas ratings measure different types of vehicle emissions. Air pollutants harm human health and/or cause smog. Greenhouse gas emissions (primarily CO2) contribute to climate change.