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Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Electric and Plug-In Hybrid Vehicles – Results

Beyond Tailpipe Emissions Calculator

Selected vehicle
The Ford Fusion Energi Plug-in Hybrid is a plug-in hybrid.
(Duluth, MN)
GHG emissions depend on how electricity is generated in your area.
This Car's
Total Emissions in your ZIP Code (Tailpipe + Upstream)
This Car's
Total Emissions with the Average US Electricity Mix
Average New Gasoline Vehicle's Total Emissions

About these calculations

Tailpipe emissions for this vehicle are 129 g/mile.

Total emissions include both tailpipe and upstream emissions. The total emissions rate is affected by a vehicle's efficiency (MPG and/or MPGe), the fuel or fuels used to power the vehicle (electricity and/or gasoline), and how that fuel is produced and distributed. This car's emissions in your ZIP Code may be different than the average in the US because different fuel sources are used to produce electricity in different parts of the country. Learn more below!

How much of my car is powered by electricity vs. gasoline?

These estimates assume that 45.1% of this vehicle's operation is powered by electricity and the rest is powered by gasoline. This assumption is based on the vehicle's design and average driving habits.

Image showing sources of upstream and tailpipe emissions.

What is the difference between tailpipe and upstream emissions? 

Vehicle tailpipe emissions are the greenhouse gas emissions your car produces when driving. Fully electric vehicles (EVs) have zero tailpipe emissions, while plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) emit greenhouse gases only when gasoline is being used to power the vehicle. The Fuel Economy and Environment Label provides a GHG Rating, from 1 (worst) to 10 (best), based on the vehicle's tailpipe carbon dioxide emissions only.

Upstream emissions are the emissions associated with the production and distribution of gasoline and electricity. This includes activities like feedstock extraction (e.g., drilling for oil or mining coal), feedstock transport to a processing plant, and conversion of feedstock to motor fuel or electricity, and the distribution of the motor fuel or electricity. Electricity emissions depend on the mix of feedstocks used to generate electricity in your region. Though not displayed in the graphic, pipeline distribution of crude oil and gasoline also contributes upstream CO2 emissions and is included in the upstream emissions estimate.

Why does my ZIP Code matter? expand content

GHG emissions vary by region, based on how the electricity is produced. For example, electricity produced from coal will result in higher GHG emissions than electricity produced from renewable sources like wind. While there may be some regional variability in upstream gasoline emissions due to factors such as differences in the distance gasoline must be transported from refineries or the source of crude oil, total CO2 emissions for a gasoline vehicle are dominated by emissions at the tailpipe. Tailpipe emissions do not vary significantly by region.

Learn more about electricity production in your ZIP Code.

* Our estimates only consider carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, which account for 95% to 99% of the total greenhouse gas emissions from a passenger vehicle—after accounting for the global warming potential of all GHGs. More info. CO2 is also the predominant greenhouse gas associated with electricity production. More info.

Electricity-related emissions are estimated using the most recently available data. Due to data collection and processing time, the electricity generation data can sometimes be several years old. GHG emissions associated with the electricity grid today may be lower than indicated in many regions due to a shift to less CO2-intensive feedstocks. Plus, purchasing green power could lower your CO2 emissions even more.

This website is administered by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the U.S. DOE and the U.S. EPA.